Here are some beliefs of the Founders that didn't quite play out, which I came across while working on federali.st (more on that in a blog post to come).
from Federalist № 45:
The number of individuals employed under the Constitution of the United States will be much smaller than the number employed under the particular States.
From № 46:
It has been already proved that the members of the federal will be more dependent on the members of the State governments, than the latter will be on the former.
From № 68:
The process of election affords a moral certainty, that the office of President will never fall to the lot of any man who is not in an eminent degree endowed with the requisite qualifications.